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Geography

Ranchi,the capital of Jharkhand State, is located at 23.35°N latitude and 85.33°E longitude.The total area covered by Ranchi Municipal Corporation is 177.19 sq. km. as per 2001 census.Its elevation from sea level is 2140 feet.
It is located in southern part of Chotanagpur pleatu.The main river flowing through Ranchi District is Subarnarekha,South Koel and its tributaries.There are three well-defined seasons: the hot-weather season, lasting from March to mid-June; the season of southwest monsoon rains, from mid-June to October; and the cold-weather season, from November to February. May is the hottest month.Generally,the cimate of Ranchi is moderate due to hilly region and dense deciduous forest.
The covered forest area of Ranchi District is 159.14 hectares(*).
Mainly,Soil is formed from the disintegration of rocks and stones.
(*)Source-Directorate of Statistics and Evaluation

OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE

Ranchi has been an important commercial, administrative and educational center of the region. The city is mainly based on tertiary activity. About 22% of the workforce is engaged in wholesale & retail trade, while 19% in manufacturing & repairs. Being a capital city, engagement of about 22% workforce in public administration, defense, social security and education, health, is expected. The district has 540 industrial units in and around close proximity of the city, contributing to the city economy. They are mainly in the field of general engineering, foundry, electrical, steel casting, electronics, chemical, refractory, etc., With the proposal of industrial area of about 350 acres at Tupudana phase III, Namkum and Gitalsud, industrial activity is likely to expand. Creation of SEZ, educational institutions, tourism related activities, health specialty facilities and IT are seen as potential economic development opportunities.

GEOGRAPHY
River 1 Subarnarekha River
2 South Koel River
3 Sankh River
Minerals and Mines 1 Limestone
2 Dolomite
3 Decorative Stones
4 China Clay
5 Chromite
6 Coal
CLIMATE

The district experiences pleasant climatic condition though tropic of Capricorn passes over it due to higher elevation. Relative humidity also remains low, so summer season is also not uncongenial. December is the coldest month with minimum temperature of 10.30 C and May is the hottest month with maximum temperature of 37.20 C.

RAINFALL

Average annual rainfall of the district is 1375 mm and more than 80 percent precipitation received during monsoon months.

Rainfall Trends Of Last Five Year
HYDROMET DIVISION
INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT
DISTRICT RAINFALL (MM.) FOR LAST FIVE YEARS
YEARS JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 71.3 226 25.5 -5 5.3 -76 15.0 -36
2011 5.6 -74 0.5 -98 1.8 -92 7.6 -68
2010 0.0 -100 0.0 -100 0.0 -100 8.5 -65
2009 10.2 -49 0.0 -100 35.6 51 3.4 -86
2008 12.3 -38 12.9 -44 25.0 6 14.5 -40


YEARS MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 13.7 -72 91.4 -58 253.2 -29 359.9 5
2011 46.9 -3 485.7 123 166.9 -53 507.8 48
2010 28.7 -37 55.9 -71 152.2 -53 152.0 -55
2009 150.3 231 128.5 -34 277.2 -14 324.2 -3
2008 53.5 18 407.3 110 472.6 47 271.6 -19


YEARS SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 277.9 15 49.5 -37 71.4 500 7.5 -26
2011 329.6 36 31.5 -60 0.0 -100 0.0 -100
2010 221.7 -6 69.8 -18 8.7 -23 37.1 743
2009 320.4 35 63.6 -25 24.9 120 5.0 14
2008 184.3 -22 19.8 -77 1.2 -89 0.0 -100
DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Topographical features of the city facilitate proper drainage throughout the city. The city is sloping away in the four directions more or less from the center. About 50 % of the roads have both side drains and remaining 50% are without drains. Over 40% of the drains are kutchha drains. The total length of kutccha drains is about 182.72 km, while pucca drain length is about 258.32 km. There is the need of restructuring and lining of the drains. De-silting of all the drains is required to avoid chocking with grass, silt and solid waste.

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