Ranchi - Physiograpy

Ranchi Map

Location

Ranchi,the capital of Jharkhand State, is located at 23.35°N latitude and 85.33°E longitude.The total area covered by Ranchi Municipal Corporation is 177.19 sq. km. as per 2001 census.Its elevation from sea level is 2140 feet.
It is located in southern part of Chotanagpur pleatu.The main river flowing through Ranchi District is Subarnarekha,South Koel and its tributaries.There are three well-defined seasons: the hot-weather season, lasting from March to mid-June; the season of southwest monsoon rains, from mid-June to October; and the cold-weather season, from November to February. May is the hottest month.Generally,the cimate of Ranchi is moderate due to hilly region and dense deciduous forest.
The covered forest area of Ranchi District is 159.14 hectares.
Mainly,Soil is formed from the disintegration of rocks and stones.

Climate, Rainfall and Drainage

The district experiences pleasant climatic condition though tropic of Capricorn passes over it due to higher elevation. Relative humidity also remains low, so summer season is also not uncongenial. December is the coldest month with minimum temperature of 10.30 C and May is the hottest month with maximum temperature of 37.20 C.

Average annual rainfall of the district is 1375 mm and more than 80 percent precipitation received during monsoon months.

Rainfall Trends Of Last Five Year
HYDROMET DIVISION
INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT
DISTRICT RAINFALL (MM.) FOR LAST FIVE YEARS
YEARS JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 71.3 226 25.5 -5 5.3 -76 15.0 -36
2011 5.6 -74 0.5 -98 1.8 -92 7.6 -68
2010 0.0 -100 0.0 -100 0.0 -100 8.5 -65
2009 10.2 -49 0.0 -100 35.6 51 3.4 -86
2008 12.3 -38 12.9 -44 25.0 6 14.5 -40

YEARS MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 13.7 -72 91.4 -58 253.2 -29 359.9 5
2011 46.9 -3 485.7 123 166.9 -53 507.8 48
2010 28.7 -37 55.9 -71 152.2 -53 152.0 -55
2009 150.3 231 128.5 -34 277.2 -14 324.2 -3
2008 53.5 18 407.3 110 472.6 47 271.6 -19

YEARS SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP. R/F %DEP.
2012 277.9 15 49.5 -37 71.4 500 7.5 -26
2011 329.6 36 31.5 -60 0.0 -100 0.0 -100
2010 221.7 -6 69.8 -18 8.7 -23 37.1 743
2009 320.4 35 63.6 -25 24.9 120 5.0 14
2008 184.3 -22 19.8 -77 1.2 -89 0.0 -100


Topographical features of the city facilitate proper drainage throughout the city. The city is sloping away in the four directions more or less from the center. About 50 % of the roads have both side drains and remaining 50% are without drains. Over 40% of the drains are kutchha drains. The total length of kutccha drains is about 182.72 km, while pucca drain length is about 258.32 km. There is the need of restructuring and lining of the drains. De-silting of all the drains is required to avoid chocking with grass, silt and solid waste.

Crops

Agriculture

The lower area provide suitable condition for paddy cultivation. The higher elevations provide condition for orchards and cultivation of pulse, millet and vegetables. The forest cover 20.99 % of total area of the district. Major crops grown in the district are rice and pulses. Only 8.30 percent area of agricultural use have irrigation facility and major source of irrigations are well and canals.

Major Soils
Red lateritic soils
Loam soil soils
Fine Loam soils
Fine mixed Loam soils

A LAND UTILIZATION
i) Total Area(in Hectare) 2010-11 610309.13
ii) Forest cover(in Hectare) 2010-11 135105.02
iii) Non Agriculture Land(in Hectare) 2010-11 87282.57
v) cultivable Barren land(in Hectare) 2010-11 14358.51
B FOREST
(i) Forest(in Hectare) 2010-11 135105.02

Name of crop Kharif Rabi Total
Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha) Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha) Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha)
Major Field crops (Crops identified based on total acreage)
Rice 216.7 1361 216.7 1361
Maize 11.7 1300 1.0 1422 12.7 1361
Pigeonpea 6.4 800 6.4 800
Blackgram 5.5 800 5.5 800
Greengram 0.6 600 0.6 600
Wheat 4.1 1485 4.1 1485
Chick pea 1.0 1018 1.0 1018
Pea 2.3 1157 2.3 1157
Lentil 0.1 447 0.1 447

Major Horticultural crops (Crops identified based on total acreage)
Name of crop Kharif Total
Production ('000t) Productivity (kg/ha) Production ('000t) Productivity (kg/ha)
Cauliflower 44192 16.0 44192 16.0
Potato 52894 8.9 52894 8.9
Cabbage 31232 16.0 31232 16.0
Tomato 36340 20.0 36340 20.0
Brinjal 54660 20.0 54660 20.0
Chilli 23196 12.0 23196 12.0
Ladies finger 50442 14.0 50442 14.0
Bitter gourd 1122 6.0 1122 6.0
Ridge gourd 606 6.0 606 6.0
Sponge gourd 8172 12.0 8172 12.0

HYDROLOGY

The development of any area largely depends on the quality of water as well as quantity of ground water and its distribution it is the responsibility of Public Health Engineering Department (PHED- covers 50% area) and RMC. Distribution system is old. The part under PHED is under rehabilitation. The present supply to Ranchi town is being made from three surface water sources namely: Kanke Dam, Hatia Dam, Rukka Dam having the combined capacity of 246 MLD. The Existing water distribution system is old and is patched at places with new pipelines. There are only 13710 number of Household connections in the city at present, which amounts to be only 7.8 % of the total estimated household of 1,74,750. The other sources of water supply in the city comprises of 1718 number of tube wells, 510 number of stand posts, 35 number of wells in RMC area. The present water supply covers 65% of the population. (RMC & PHED estimates it as 80%).

FLORA AND FAUNA

Around 29% area is been covered by forest. The natural vegetation is deciduous forest and rich in sal (Shorea robusta), a valuable hardwood. Other trees include the asan (Terminalia tomentosa),. The tree locally known as mahua (Madhuca longifolia) yields sweet edible flowers that are used to make liquor. Bamboo and bhabar

Geographical Area Forest Cover Percent Change
Very Moderately Open Total
Dense Dense Forest Forest
7698 148 687 1040 1875 24.36 143