Birsa Agricultural University

Agricultural education was first started in Bihar in 1945 with the establishment of Bihar Agricultural College at Sabour in the district of Bhagalpur. Later on, it was realised that the agricultural situation and features of the plateau region of South Bihar is different from the rest of Bihar. Hence there was a need of a second college for this region. Ranchi Agricultural College was established in 1955, Ranchi Veterinary College in 1961 and College of Forestry in 1980. Considering the importance of agricultural education for the agricultural development of the state, the first Agricultural University in Bihar – Rajendra Agricultural University was started in1971 with its headquarters at Pusa. In view of the specific agriculture features of Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas, the establishment of a second Agricultural University, for this region of the Bihar State, was conceived.

Source: Birsa Agricultural University



The lower area provide suitable condition for paddy cultivation. The higher elevations provide condition for orchards and cultivation of pulse, millet and vegetables. The forest cover 20.99 % of total area of the district. Major crops grown in the district are rice and pulses. Only 8.30 percent area of agricultural use have irrigation facility and major source of irrigations are well and canals.

Major Soils
Red lateritic soils
Loam soil soils
Fine Loam soils
Fine mixed Loam soils

i) Total Area(in Hectare) 2010-11 610309.13
ii) Forest cover(in Hectare) 2010-11 135105.02
iii) Non Agriculture Land(in Hectare) 2010-11 87282.57
v) cultivable Barren land(in Hectare) 2010-11 14358.51
(i) Forest(in Hectare) 2010-11 135105.02

Name of crop Kharif Rabi Total
Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha) Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha) Pro- duction ('000t) Pro- ductivity (kg/ha)
Major Field crops (Crops identified based on total acreage)
Rice 216.7 1361 216.7 1361
Maize 11.7 1300 1.0 1422 12.7 1361
Pigeonpea 6.4 800 6.4 800
Blackgram 5.5 800 5.5 800
Greengram 0.6 600 0.6 600
Wheat 4.1 1485 4.1 1485
Chick pea 1.0 1018 1.0 1018
Pea 2.3 1157 2.3 1157
Lentil 0.1 447 0.1 447

Major Horticultural crops (Crops identified based on total acreage)
Name of crop Kharif Total
Production ('000t) Productivity (kg/ha) Production ('000t) Productivity (kg/ha)
Cauliflower 44192 16.0 44192 16.0
Potato 52894 8.9 52894 8.9
Cabbage 31232 16.0 31232 16.0
Tomato 36340 20.0 36340 20.0
Brinjal 54660 20.0 54660 20.0
Chilli 23196 12.0 23196 12.0
Ladies finger 50442 14.0 50442 14.0
Bitter gourd 1122 6.0 1122 6.0
Ridge gourd 606 6.0 606 6.0
Sponge gourd 8172 12.0 8172 12.0


The development of any area largely depends on the quality of water as well as quantity of ground water and its distribution it is the responsibility of Public Health Engineering Department (PHED- covers 50% area) and RMC. Distribution system is old. The part under PHED is under rehabilitation. The present supply to Ranchi town is being made from three surface water sources namely: Kanke Dam, Hatia Dam, Rukka Dam having the combined capacity of 246 MLD. The Existing water distribution system is old and is patched at places with new pipelines. There are only 13710 number of Household connections in the city at present, which amounts to be only 7.8 % of the total estimated household of 1,74,750. The other sources of water supply in the city comprises of 1718 number of tube wells, 510 number of stand posts, 35 number of wells in RMC area. The present water supply covers 65% of the population. (RMC & PHED estimates it as 80%).


Around 29% area is been covered by forest. The natural vegetation is deciduous forest and rich in sal (Shorea robusta), a valuable hardwood. Other trees include the asan (Terminalia tomentosa),. The tree locally known as mahua (Madhuca longifolia) yields sweet edible flowers that are used to make liquor. Bamboo and bhabar

Geographical Area Forest Cover Percent Change
Very Moderately Open Total
Dense Dense Forest Forest
7698 148 687 1040 1875 24.36 143